Peru's presidency: 30 years of scandals, dismissals and resignations

Image of the Government Palace of Peru

This Monday the congress of Peru appointed Francisco Sagasti as president of this nation, after the ephemeral mandate of Manuel Merino, who with only five days was forced to resign after the social outbreak that was generated after his appointment.

This crisis of democracy is not a novelty in the Peruvian nation where the judicialization of politics and the excessive intervening role of Congress, have made the last five heads of the Inca Executive have taken over the world media for being imprisoned, on the run and even suicidal.

Alberto Fujimori: from self-coup to vanquishment

Fujimori on the outskirts of the Peruvian congress after undertaking the military takeover / 1992

Peru's governance crisis began with the arrival to the presidency of Alberto Fujimori, who after being elected in 1990, decided in 1992 to carry out a self-coup closing the Congress and the Supreme Court of Peru. In 1993, he launched a Constituent Congress that promulgated a new Constitution where it diminished the powers of the Legislative and called new elections, managing to obtain control of the majority in parliament.

After being elected for a third term in 2000 and after having lost the majority in Congress, an investigation process begins in parliament, so he takes advantage of a tour to leave the country and from Japan he presents his resignation which It is rejected by the Legislature that begins the process to declare his dismissal from office, which is assumed by Valentín Paniagua.

Upon being singled out and criminalized for crimes of corruption and violation of human rights, he began his extradition process from Japan, which took place in November 2005. Fujimori is currently in prison serving a 25-year sentence.

Alejandro Toledo: "El cholo" with refined tastes

Image of Toledo during speech in military parade / 2001

After elections were called in 2001, Alejandro Toledo was elected, who due to his indigenous characteristics and his image as a man of the people was baptized as “El Cholo”, a nickname that was forgotten in 2011 when emails from the US ambassador to the nation were revealed Inca, where the exquisite tastes in liquor matters and the extravagances that he demanded during his presidential tours were pointed out.

In 2016, after the “Lavajato” scandals broke out, which involved the payment of bribes by the Brazilian company Odebretch to Latin American leaders, Toledo's name appears among those mentioned, so an investigation is opened and by when it is decided that there is responsibility and his arrest is ordered, it was learned that "El Cholo" had left the country to an unknown destination. He is currently in the United States on bail.

Alan García: the South American Nero

At the end of Toledo's period in the 2005 elections, Alan García was elected to the position he had already held between 1985-1990. After two periods marked by the economic bonanza that was registered in the South American region, he was committed to reelection in 2016 with little success.

After the explosion of the "Lavajato", another of the names that appears is that of García, who is accused of having received bribes in the order of 20 million dollars, for which his departure from the country is prohibited and the order of Arrest against him on April 17, 2019, the police arrive at his home where he is found dead with a shot in the right temple, an action that recalls that carried out by the Roman emperor Nero, when he was overthrown by a gestated coup by the governors.

Ollanta Humala: from the left to the corrupt right

To get to the Government Ollanta formed a coalition with Alejandro Toledo and other right-wing actors

After being associated with a nationalist military uprising led by his brother Antauro and pointing out his “admiration” for Latin American left-wing leaders, in 2011 Ollanta Humala was elected as president, who upon reaching the presidency made alliances with sectors of the right such as Alejandro Toledo and Mario Vargas Llosa for the formation of a government that ruined the promises of profound changes made in its campaign.

After a government marked by the continuity of old economic policies and the promotion of large road infrastructure works sustained by the Latin American economic boom, after completing his mandate Humala is investigated for his alleged participation in the bribery cases of the Brazilian company Odebrecht, for what is apprehended. He is currently under "restricted appearance" (house for jail) and faces a trial where he is charged with charges that could carry 20 years in prison.

Pedro Pablo Kuczynski: the cute little northern dog

In the 2016 elections, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski is elected as president of Peru. Most of his life was spent in the United States, so his Castilian Spanish was steeped in Englishism and gringo phonetics. His time in politics was marked by his admiration for the North American nation, which led him to point out that: “The United States focuses on those areas where there are problems. Like the Middle East. He does not spend a lot of time in Latin America because he is like a nice dog that is sleeping on the rug and does not create any problems.

As a consequence of the social crisis caused by the implementation of extreme neoliberal measures, Congress initiates an investigation against him under accusations of negligence and in the midst of these discussions, recordings emerge that account for negotiations that people close to him were carrying out. to those around him, who offered money and positions to parliamentary groups so that they will vote against the vacancy. This revelation forced him to submit his resignation in March 2018 and is currently serving a three-year preventive prison sentence for links to Odebrecht bribes.

Martín Vizcarra: from transitory to busy

Vizcarra offers a speech to Congress that a few months later would dismiss him

After the resignation of Kuczynski, Congress designates the First Vice President of the Government, Martín Vizcarra, as President of Peru who was as ambassador of the Inca nation in Canada and was called to complete the mandate and organize the elections where Peruvians would vote for a new President.

With little more than a year of having been sworn in to applause from the congressmen, in September 2019, Vizcarra announced the dissolution of Congress and in January 2020 a new parliament was elected that would culminate the dissolved period scheduled for 2021. Congress The election resulted in a multiparty composition where the President did not obtain a majority and, as a result of the negotiation of the various factions, the formation of an opposition majority was achieved, which put Manuel Merino in front of the presidency of the Parliament.

It is this Congress that, 11 months after its installation, promotes a vacancy against Vizcarra, which they approved by majority dismissing the president for “moral incapacity”, by accusing him of having received alleged bribes during his tenure as governor of the Moquegua region between 2011 and 2014, according to testimonies of "anonymous" witnesses.

Manuel Merino: the brief

Image of Manuel Merino announcing his resignation from the position he held for only five days

After the dismissal of Vizcarra, Manuel Merino, who was the president of Congress, was sworn in to succeed him. The passage as Chief Executive by Merino was only five days in which Peru was overwhelmed by social protests that demanded the end of this Government and the call for general elections under the slogan "everyone leave."

These demonstrations were subject to excessive repression by the police forces, causing the death of at least two people and several injuries. As a result of these actions, Merino is dismissed by the same Congress that swore him in and an investigation for human rights violations is opened against him.

All this history of vacancies and constant interventions by the Executive against Congress and vice versa, always low accusations of mutual corruption, keeps Peru submerged in a constant institutional crisis and political instability, a condition that some claim makes it a model of a "failed state." .

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