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Multipolar geopolitics

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As the sciences advance, they distance themselves from each other until the ideal of totality is assumed to be unattainable. Exception to this rule is strategy, knowledge that requires one of the largest integrations of knowledge to formulate conclusions. There is no strategy without examination of geography, society, economy, politics, international relations and that universe of knowledge, representations, values ​​and practices that we call culture. In this sense, the latest book by General-in-Chief Vladimir Padrino López Multipolar Geopolitics: 20 years after 13-A (Fundación Editorial El Perro y la Rana, Caracas, 2022) is a journey through the agendas that define contemporaneity, at the same time what a survival manual in it. Let's highlight a few.

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The natural sphere of sovereignties is the same as that of the cultures they defend, that is, that of nations. But since the establishment of the first modern state by Frederick II of Swabia in the XNUMXth century in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the absolute and perpetual powers of sovereignties have competed for the establishment, first, of a universal monarchy and then of hegemony. planet, subjugating and destroying less strong governments and cultures, until reaching the impasse in which the conflict could mean mutually assured destruction. This rules out a head-on clash between powers; Since then, the contests have been waged on the stages of smaller states through proxies, allied intermediaries, sepoys or mercenaries.

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In this struggle between powers that cannot be used to the full without destroying each other, a perpetual emulation of forces is waged in the atomic and arms, economic-financial, energy and technological fields. In the field of weapons, the United States has been overtaken by Russia with its long-range hypersonic nuclear missiles. In the financial economy, the northern power has declined in its productive performance by preferring to import goods and exploit workers from other countries in exchange for a currency that since 1974 has not had the slightest support. Padrino López points out that the US economy is growing at a rate of 3% per year, while China's is growing at 7%.

We add that the International Monetary Fund recognized that the People's Republic of China has been the world's leading economy since 2015, with a GDP of 17,6 trillion dollars, which exceeded the 17,4 trillion of that of the United States, which at that time the Asian country held the largest foreign exchange reserves in the world (Russia Today, 19-11-2014) and had more than a third of the foreign debt of the United States, which exceeded 107% of the GDP of said country, while that of the country Asia stood at a modest 4,11% of its GDP.

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In the energy field, Vladimir Padrino points out that the United States is currently the world's leading oil producer, Saudi Arabia the second, the Russian Federation the third, and that China's Achilles' heel lies in its scarce fossil energy. We point out that according to the International Energy Agency, the proven oil reserves of the United States at the end of 2020 were 38.200 million barrels (MMBbls), and that at the current extraction rate of 11.500.000 BPD, in less than 8 years will have used up all its reserves. The northern power also has its energy Achilles heel, which it tries to repair by seizing the first fossil energy reserve in the world in Venezuela.

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In the technological and scientific field, Padrino López indicates that in 5G technology, "China at this time has reached the same level as the United States, surpassing France, Japan and Great Britain", and that "it speeds up the perspective technology of Gafat, by browsing faster on the internet platform”. Vladimir Putin declared in September 2017 that “the country that dominates artificial intelligence will dominate the world”.

We reiterate that Russian hypersonic missile cyber devices surpass the military might of the United States. China is closer than anyone to the cusp of the fourth wave of computing, autonomous artificial intelligence. We adhere to the warning of Karel Chapek and Stephen Hawkins in the sense that an uncontrolled development of artificial intelligence could make the human species extinct.

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A book is a proposal, but also a challenge for everyone to formulate their conclusions. In this complex game of powers, Venezuela is both a coveted prey and a determining factor.

In a world in which the fossil fuels that supply about 80% of the world's energy consumption tend to run out in four or five decades, we have the largest reserves in the world, and enough gold to establish a new monetary system. We must not unconditionally surrender to foreign capital, as if we had been annihilated in a total war. The one who has surrendered is the imperial power that sends its emissaries to the gates of Miraflores to beg for fossil energy.

We must, on the contrary, manage in a balanced way the tensions of a world that tends towards tripolarity and multipolarity in order to gain our space in it. In this scenario, the presence of a first-class army is absolutely necessary, with harmonious coordination with the political power and support bodies of society, such as the Militia, the Reserve and a citizenry with military training, which guarantee a dissuasive capacity insurmountable against the scramble of imperial capitalism.

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Padrino López points even higher at the conclusion of his book, recalling that "it was not by chance when Comandante Chávez, in the Unasur proposal, raised the idea of ​​a Unasur Defense Council: that is, that the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Alba), the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (Celac), the Union of South American Nations (Unasur) and the Oil Alliance between Caribbean countries and Venezuela (Petrocaribe), without a Geopolitical Operational Strategic Command to support it, its days are numbered.”

To think about all this, and act accordingly.

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