New symptoms, variants and treatments of covid appear in the world

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared on March 11, 2020 the new coronavirus called Covid-19 as a pandemic. One year after that announcement, the virus that has infected almost 120 million people in the world, has managed to mutate and generate new strains and symptoms that keep scientists in constant analysis to avoid a worldwide reinfection.

Since the massive transmission of the coronavirus began at the end of 2019, there are currently three variants of the covid-19 spreading more easily in the world, such as the Kent variant of the United Kingdom N501Y detected in Brazil and South Africa; the B.1.351 of the latter country and from the end of November 2020 the P.1 of Brazil

A study carried out by researchers from the University of Sao Paulo, The University of Oxford; and Imperial College London revealed that the variant of SARS-CoV-2 found in Brazil and called P.1 can evade the immunity acquired in people by previous infections.

P.1 -one of the variants that worries the most internationally- has spread to 20 nations and the scientists participating in the referenced work sequenced the virus and found 17 mutations of the variant, which they explain as “a unusually large number ”unlike the rest.

This is because there is a constant between mutations and that is that they affect the peak protein to enter cells more easily. Thanks to this finding, it has been determined that the variant has been registered since last November in Manaus, Brazil.

Review the most recent text of the study, which the data show; a more transmissible and more elusive strain than previously known, which is why it is twice as transmissible as Covid-19.

Regarding the variants from the United Kingdom and South Africa, advances in studies indicate that, like P.1, they have mutations in the spicule such as N501Y, present in all three variants, and E484K, found in that of South Africa and in which circulates in Brazil.

These mutations suggest that N501Y may make SARS-CoV-2 more transmissible but there is no evidence that the mutation causes more severe symptoms; and E484K, has been shown to hinder the action of antibodies, which could impact the efficacy of current vaccines.

Recently, a study developed in Brazil revealed that a patient can be infected with two variants of Covid-19 at the same time due to the high viral load of the variants of SARS-CoV-2.

This finding came from 92 samples collected from infected people at the end of November 2020 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil; There, two 30-year-old patients infected with variant B.1.1.28 (E484 K), which arose in Rio de Janeiro, were identified and at the same time tested positive for variants B.1.1.248 or B.1.91 of the virus.

These were the only two cases reported with the two variants and whose carriers only presented mild symptoms and recovered without going through hospitalization. Researchers do not know if this discovery implies further transmission of the pathogen.

"These coinfections are a reflection of the high simultaneous circulation of different lineages of the virus in a given geographic space," explained Fernando Spilki, virologist from Feevale University, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and co-author of the study published in Virus Research and cited by the science news and analysis web portal SciDev.Net.

Regarding the Brazilian novelty, Vivian Luchsinger, a virologist from the Institute of Biomedical Sciences of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, explained to SciDev.Net that there are no tests that determine whether a patient can transmit both strains and the frequency of the coinfection that is likely to is happening now.

The WHO reports on its website that viruses change to survive and reproduce, which makes their variations successful and dominant, a scenario that is sought to be avoided, especially with P.1.

(CALIFORNIA)

New symptoms of Covid-19

The WHO and other international organizations published in studies immediately after the onset of the pandemic a list of common symptoms in patients with Covid-19 that have varied with the appearance of new strains.

A person may suspect the presence of the virus in their body by presenting the classic symptoms such as fever, dry cough, tiredness, aches and pains in the bones, sore throat, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, headache, loss of sense of smell or sense of smell. taste, rash, or discoloration of fingers or toes

Serious symptoms include shortness of breath, chest pain or pressure, and inability to speak or move. These are those already identified by the world population.

However, there are other signs that are manifested in patients with Covid-19 and that have been recently discovered in analyzes such as the one published by researchers from the La Paz University Hospital and Primary Care of the Madrid Health Service (SERMAS) of the Community of Madrid.

The work cited by the website Enfermeria21 explains that of 666 patients who entered the IFEMA field medical center in April 2020 presented alterations such as increased tongue size and depapilation in patches, which are smoother areas of the tongue that can cause loss of taste.

Another symptom registered in the alteration in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, with a burning sensation and red spots, and in some patients there was peeling or appearance of small spots, all indicative of Covid-19.

Among the symptoms identified in recent months are five types of skin lesions likely to be the first manifestations associated with Covid-19 in a study directed by the Pathological Anatomy Service of the Hospital 12 de Octubre, located in Madrid, in which the presence of viral particles from SARS-CoV-2 infection on the skin.

To do this, 25 samples collected between March 20 and April 25, 2020, during the first wave of the pandemic, were analyzed in patients aged 7 to 13 and 28 to 83.

In addition, the appearance of halitosis in patients who did not suffer from it before has been associated with the virus, and the explanation refers that it is due to the direct involvement of the oral mucosa by SARS-CoV-2 or indirectly to the destruction of salivary glands and dry mouth, in the infected.

Classic and current treatments

Although there are various vaccines developed by nations such as the United States (USA), China and Russia, to control the coronavirus, treatments with pharmaceutical formulas already existing before the pandemic and intended for other diseases continue to be applied along with other alternatives that are they have been adding to calm the symptoms.

As revealing data of the social and economic impact that the search for medicines against Covid-19 has generated, before the development of vaccines; About 2.840 billion yuan - about $ 434 million - was spent on medical bills related to treatment, in China alone, according to a report published by the National Health Security Administration of that country, and cited by the news agency Xinhua.

Scientists in Italy develop the so-called Siena treatment, a therapy derived from the blood of people who have recovered; and is based on 453 different antibodies. Advances indicate that a single injection should be administered instead of a prolonged infusion, which has been the norm for similar drugs.

Clinical trials of some 3 doses produced so far began in Italy on Thursday, March 4, and their launch for general use could be approved from August.

Likewise, Remdesivir continues to be one of the most qualified treatments and is an antiviral drug formulated by the American company Gilead; approved by its sanitary regulator FDA since May 2020 as emergency use and first treatment against Covid19; and since October the authorization was extended.

Remdesivir injection is used to treat coronavirus disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 in adults and children 12 years of age and older who weigh at least 88 pounds (40 kg) and who have been hospitalized.

Remdesivir has been approved in 50 countries, including Japan, South Korea, and the European Union, and continues to be applied today.

The internist and director of the Institute of Functional and Integral Medicine, Lima, Peru, Marco Carvajal, in a work published by El Comercio, specified that a patient can take paracetamol when the fever is very high, because if it is taken when it is mild , the body's defense system will not work against the virus, as the goal of fever is for the body to respond to the virus. 

Prescription myths

Although it has been proven that the antibiotics used against Covid-19 only decrease the inflammatory response associated with the disease, drugs such as dexamethasone should be reserved only for patients who need it most, as it is not convenient to accumulate stocks of this drug, he points out. the WHO in its manual of Advice for the Population.

On the other hand, studies showed that hydroxychloroquine does not produce beneficial clinical effects in treatment, but even so, it was used at the beginning of the pandemic to relieve pain and reduce mortality.

"In general, it is considered that it is safe to take hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine to treat malaria and autoimmune diseases," says the WHO.

An idea that was rolled into the world community at the beginning was the consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements that later, the WHO clarified that they do not cure Covid-19. 

“Micronutrients, such as vitamins D and C or zinc, are essential for the proper functioning of the immune system and play a vital role for health and nutritional well-being. At present, there is no indication on the use of micronutrient supplements as a treatment for Covid-19 ”, indicates the agency.

To these treatments are added the general recommendations of health organizations in the world such as the abundant consumption of water between six to eight glasses a day; a soft diet and rest to avoid complications.

If a person has symptoms of the disease and does not live alone, the Mayo Clinic in the USA recommends isolating themselves from the rest of the family or other people. This means eating alone in one room, using a separate bathroom, and opening the windows of the home to allow air to circulate.

Also, ventilate and disinfect common areas in the home and finally the use of a mask that, although it does not prevent the spread of the coronavirus, helps contain it.

The voice of WHO

The main cause of death in nations such as the US was due to Covid-19 according to data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

"This virus could take [young people] to hospital for weeks or even kill them," WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom said in March 2020.

Until then, the coronavirus has infected almost 120 million people, caused more than two million deaths and almost 94 million patients have recovered.

Although science advances along with the changes of the coronavirus and the trend of infections had recently decreased, Adhanom recommended not to lower our guard in countries in Europe, America, the Middle East and South Asia, where measures were relaxed.

He pointed out that in Africa and East Asia the curves remain stable, despite the variations; so the WHO is trying to determine the possible causes behind the increases.

He warned this week that not listening to suggestions made it easier for the new coronavirus to spread rapidly to reach the current figure of almost 120 million confirmed cases. "March 11 was not the time when we raised the highest level of alarm, that moment was January 30, when I declared the global health emergency," Adhanom said in recent statements to the international press, reiterating that at that time only There were 100 cases identified outside of China, and now the scenario invites the world population not to neglect themselves.

 

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