Insomnia is a syndromic picture that is due to an alteration in the sleep cycles, which are due, in 5% of cases, to a dysfunction of the brain's sleep circuitry itself, and in 95% to a demonstrable underlying cause. .
According to the World Health Organization, anxiety disorders and depressive disorder represent the first causes. In addition to panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety and social anxiety are also causes of more than 94% of cases of major depressive disorders, which means that insomnia has become a epidemic that affects people due to their daily life surrounded by stressors that end up experiencing forms of mental illness and consequently insomnia.
In this sense, the international journal The Lancet Neurology recently showed the results of a clinical trial on a very promising new drug to treat chronic insomnia in adults. The pill can induce sleep and does not cause drowsiness.
The product, called daridorexant and approved for sale by the European Commission, blocks the activation of receptors for the hormone orexin, which is responsible for maintaining wakefulness; and it does not produce tolerance either, which means greater efficiency compared to other medications that lose effectiveness with use.
The researchers point out that the objective of daridorexant is to overcome the disadvantages of other treatments in which the dose must be increased over time, so that with this pill there is no greater drowsiness or rebound, since it was done considering the pathophysiology of insomnia.
In this regard, Últimas Noticias consulted the psychiatrist Ezequiel Uribe, who explained that it is important to bear in mind that before prescribing drugs to a patient with insomnia, a psychiatrist must prepare an evaluation so that the indicated drugs are appropriate.
It details that the drugs that are prescribed have to be ideal for the conditions of the patient with insomnia and can solve both the sleep problem and its underlying cause.
It emphasizes that in the event that the sleep disorder is the last consequence of a mental disorder, insomnia will only improve when indicating the treatment of choice for the mental disorder.
The psychiatrist at the Teaching Institute of Urology and professor and researcher at the Department of Neurophysiology at the University of Carabobo specifies that there are two types of insomnia: primary and secondary.
Primary insomnia refers to an alteration in the microcircuitry of sleep cycles. Uribe reiterates that it affects 5% of the population with insomnia, while 95% is secondary, indicating the existence of an underlying cause.
He comments that despite the fact that there is no classification or stage of insomnia as mild, moderate or severe, there are two definitions: consolidation and maintenance insomnia. In the first, insomnias are included in which the subject goes to bed and it is impossible for him to fall asleep, and if he does, he does so very late according to his tastes.
On the other hand, maintenance insomnias are those that, despite the fact that the person falls asleep quickly, gets up relatively early in the morning or at least before dawn. However, this is only the case if the subject is getting short or intermittent sleep, he said.
In addition, the psychiatrist who gives advice on his own account on instagram @neuropsychiatry_, reiterated that the evolution of the person with insomnia will always depend on the diagnosis, because due to depression and anxiety in 70% of cases there is a remittance of sleep disturbances , while, due to schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolarity, they are conditions that are not cured and can start with insomnia, then stabilize with medications almost for life.
Currently, in Europe, chronic insomnia affects 6% to 12% of the population and the World Health Organization reports that there are 88 types of sleep disorders and insomnia is the most frequent.
Treatments for insomnia focus on ensuring individual care, and improving sleep habits, as well as identifying solutions to underlying causes.
Phototherapies and cognitive behavioral therapy are recommended, plus there are a variety of sedatives, antihistamines, and antidepressants.
However, side effects should be considered. The specialists indicated to treat the problem are the doctors of the primary systems to prevent, but also diagnose and treat.
Likewise, a clinical psychologist who deals with coping with mental disorders and a specialist in sleep medicine, as well as a psychiatrist who deals with mental disorders with medication.